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Angielski CPE

Przykładowy test CAMBRIDGE CERTIFICATE OF PROFICIENCY IN ENGLISH

Zobacz także
First Certificate in English >>>
Certificate in Advanced English >>>

Paper 1 Reading
Paper 2 Writing
Paper 3 English in Use
Paper 4 Listening
Paper 5 Speaking


The revised CPE exam will be introduced for the first time in December 2002. That is why we are not giving samples of past papers of current CPE exam (last sitting June 2002) .

All the samples come from Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English 1 and Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English 2 published by Cambridge University Press in 2002. Cambridge University Press is the only official publisher of CPE papers from UCLES.

If you want to approach the Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE) with confidence you need to familiarise yourself thoroughly with the new format and content of the revised exam - and you need to practise examination techniques using genuine material such as the CPE papers which have been specially prepared for publication by the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES). They provide the most authentic ex- amination practice available.

The Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English examination consists of 5 papers, each of which has equal weighting of 20% of the total marks.

Paper 1 (Reading) and parts of Paper 4 (Listening ) are marked by computer scanning of the answer sheet.

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Paper 1 Reading (1 hour 30 minutes)
This paper consists of four parts. Each part contains one or more texts and a comprehension task. The tasks test candidates' ability to understand the meaning of written English at word, phrase, sentence. paragraph and whole text level. There are 40 questions.

Part 1
Four option multiple-choice lexical cloze.
Three short texts (total 375-500 words), each with six gaps. There is a choice of four possible answers for each gap.

Example
For questions 1-18, read the three texts below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet.

Othello

The transfer to London from Stratford of an exceptional production of Shakespeare's play Othello allows me to make (1) .... for an unfair review that I wrote when the show opened last spring. Back then I complained that Ray Fearon was too young to play the title role and I was guilty of running down his acting. I still think it's a distortion of the tragedy to remove the age difference between Othello and Desdemona but I eat my (2) .... about the rest of Mr Fearon's magnificent performance. Indeed the whole cast is magnificent. Memorable scenes include the one where Cassio's competitive games with the other young officers get dangerously out of (3) .... , and the moment when Iago begins to lose control and has to struggle to get a (4) .... on himself. And I challenge anyone not to be (5) .... to tears during the scene where Emilia prepares Desdemona for bed. The (6) .... and tension throughout are terrific. Do not miss this production.

1 A confessions B amends C compensation D recourse
2 A thoughts B words C ideas D comments
3 A turn B place C reach D hand
4 A brake B grasp C rein D grip
5 A drawn B sent C moved D carried
6 A pace B dash C rate D haste

Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English 1, Examination Papers from the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, wyd. Cambridge University Press 2002

Part 2
Four option multiple-choice.
Four short texts on the same theme (total 600- 900 words) with two multiple-choice comprehension questions per text. You have to choose the best answer.

Example
You are going to read four extracts which are all concerned in some way with language and literature. For questions 19-26, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text. Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet.

How to Write Poetry

Telling people how to write poetry is a bit like frolicking through a minefield; spontaneity is the order of the day, but one false step and a dozen certainties will blow up in your face. Setting oneself up as a know-all is dangerous, so I have decided to side-step the whole issue by saying that, for someone just beginning to write, no advice can be a substitute for abundant reading, extensive writing, and the freeing of the imagination and spirit in whatever way seems fruitful, barring total anarchy. Some people need their life to be reasonably secure before a poem will come; others can write their way out of misery. Some write to a timetable; others wait for some moment of crystallisation, a brainwave or slow dawning. All are right, providing they are not echoing some prescriptive score. And it's this finding of a tune which is important, hearing the still small voice inside yourself, and feeding it, and watering it, and letting it out for air from time to time; one day it'll be old enough to take care of itself.

19. How does the writer feel about advising people on how to write poetry?
A nervous because she feels unqualified to do so
B unhappy at being asked
C wary of giving misleading guidance
D anxious to keep poetry spontaneous

20. What is the writer emphasising when she says `not echoing some prescriptive score'?
A the need for originality
B the influence of music
C the search for inspiration
D the nature of insight

Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English 2, Examination Papers from the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, wyd. Cambridge University Press 2002

Part 3 Gapped text. One long text (800-1100 words) from which seven paragraphs have been removed and placed in jumbled order on the next page. You have to decide from where in the text the paragraphs have been removed. There is one paragraph which does not fit anywhere.

Part 4 Multiple-choice comprehension questions. One long text (700 - 850 words) with seven four-option multiple-choice questions.
(Total: 40 questions = 40 marks)


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Paper 2 Writing (2 hours)
There are two parts to this paper, each with a writing task of approximately 300-350 words.
They assess candidates' ability to write specified text types with a range of functions.

Part 1
Consists of a compulsory task based on substantial reading input. After reading the
instructions, you read a short text (maybe a short letter, article or advertisement) and then write an article, essay, letter or proposal. The focus is on presenting and developing arguments, expressing and supporting opinions, and evaluating ideas.

Example
You must answer this question. Write your answer in 300-350 words in an appropriate style.

1 Plans have been put forward to build a fast food restaurant in the historic centre of a town you know. Many local residents have expressed their disapproval:


'This means there will be even more traffic in the town!'



'It will spoil the old-world character of the place.'


'People come here to escape places like fast food restaurants, so many people will stop coming here.'


However, you and other residents believe it will encourage more visitors to the town, increase revenue, and generate an interest in local history. You decide to send a proposal to the local
council in which you say why you think the plans should be implemented.

Write your proposal.

Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English 2, Examination Papers from the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, wyd. Cambridge University Press 2002

Part 2
Consists of one task selected from a choice of four. One of the choices includes a question on each of the set texts. The following formats are included here: an article, an essay, a letter, a report or a review. The tasks may involve any of the following functions: describing, evaluating, giving information, making recommendations, narrating, persuading, summarising.

Example
Write an answer to one of the questions 2-5 in this part. Write your answer in 300-350 words in an appropriate style.

2 You read the following in an international magazine:

Poverty exists in almost every country, and the difference between the rich
and the poor is growing all the time. What can we do about this situation?


The magazine has asked people to send in ideas in the form of a proposal, suggesting ways of helping to reduce poverty. You decide to send in a proposal.
Write your proposal.

3 The local council has conducted a survey to find out if local residents think that public money should be spent on a new leisure centre, a new library or a new playground for children. You have been asked to write a report for the local council based on the opinions the residents gave in the survey, and make appropriate recommendations.
Write your report.

4 International Traveller magazine is running a competition for the best article entitled 'A Country of Contrasts'. You decide to submit an entry. The article should describe the contrasts that make the country an interesting place to visit, and encourage the readers to explore the country as widely as possible.
Write your article.

5 Based on your reading of one of these books, write on one of the following.
(a) Anne Tyler: The Accidental Tourist
'A dried-up kernel of a man that nothing really penetrates. ' Write an essay for your tutor in which you say how far you agree with this view of Macon.
Write your essay.
(b)
John Wyndham: The Day of the Triffids
The editor of a literary magazine is asking for reviews of books which describe events that changed the world. You write a review of The Day of the Triffids in which you describe the events and say whether or not the book gives an optimistic view of human nature.
Write your review.

(c) Graham Green: Our Man in Havana
'Our Man in Havana was written to amuse and entertain the reader. It has no serious moral purpose.' Write an essay for your tutor, saying how far you agree or disagree with this view of the novel.
Write your essay.

Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English 2, Examination Papers from the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, wyd. Cambridge University Press 2002
(Examiners' marks scaled to 40 marks)


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Paper 3 English in Use (1 hour 30 minutes)

There are five parts to this paper (44 questions) which test your ability to demonstrate knowledge and control of the language system by completing various tasks at text and sentence level.

Part 1
Modified open cloze.
One text with 15 gaps to fill, testing grammar and vocabulary. You have to think of a suitable word to fill each gap.
(15 questions, each worth 1 mark)

Example
For questions 1-15, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. There is an example at the beginning (0).
Write your answers in CAPITAL LETTERS on the separate answer sheet.

Example:
0 N O T

RELAXATION

True relaxation is most certainly (0) ........ a matter of flopping down in front of the television with a welcome drink. Nor is it about drifting (1) ............... an exhausted sleep. Useful though these responses to tension and over-tiredness (2) ............... be, we should distinguish between them and conscious relaxation in (3) ............... of quality and effect. (4) ............... of the level of tiredness, real relaxation is a state of alert yet at the same (5) ............... passive awareness, in which our bodies are (6) ............... rest while our minds are awake.
Moreover, it is as natural (7) ............... a healthy person to be relaxed when moving as resting. (8) ............... relaxed in action means we bring the appropriate energy to everything we do, (9) ............... as to have a feeling of healthy tiredness by the end of the day, (10) ............... than one of exhaustion.

Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English 1, Examination Papers from the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, wyd. Cambridge University Press 2002

Part 2
Word formation questions.
One text with 10 gaps to fill. Each gap corresponds to a word. The 'stems' of the missing words are given beside the text and you have to transform them to provide the missing word.
(10 questions, each worth 1 mark)

Example
For questions 16-25, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0).
Write your answers in CAPITAL LETTERS on the separate answer sheet.

Example:
0 P S Y C H O L O G I S T S

EVERY TIME WE SAY GOODBYE

According to research by (0) .......... one can learn a great deal about PSYCHOLOGY
the state of people's relationships by watching how they say goodbye at
airports. However, it seems that it is not (16) .......... those in the strongest NECESSARY
relationships who make the greatest display of (17) .......... at parting. Such RELUCTANT
behaviour is more (18) .......... of couples who have been together for CHARACTER
a relatively short period of time. There is less (19) .......... of people LIKELY
in long-term relationships showing strong feelings of dependency.
This may seem surprising but it is (20) .......... because the people PRESUME
have been successful in establishing stability in their relationship
and are able to see the separation as brief and of no great (21 ) .......... . SIGNIFY

Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English 1, Examination Papers from the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, wyd. Cambridge University Press 2002

Part 3
Gapped sentences.
Six groups of three sentences with a word missing. You have to decide which word fits into all three gaps. This tests collocation, phrasal verbs, idioms and meanings.
(6 questions, each worth 2 marks)

Example
For questions 26-31, think of one word only which can be used appropriately in all three sentences. Here is an example (0).
Example: 0 Some of the tourists are hoping to get compensation for the poor state of the hotel, and I think they have a very .................................... case.
There's no point in trying to wade across the river, the current is far too ....................................
If you're asking me which of the candidates should get the job, I'm afraid I don't have any .................................... views either way.

0 S T R O N G

Write only the missing word in CAPITAL LETTERS on the separate answer sheet.

26 A key witness can often provide detailed corroboration, thus having a dramatic .................................... on the outcome of a complex legal case.

It's generally agreed that the .................................... of television in the modern world is considerable.

Martha Graham played a major role in developing the theory of modern dance, so extending her .................................... to a whole new generation of dancers.

27 My boss is extremely efficient, but unfortunately she's not always very .................................... to other people's worries.

In the play, James Collard gave a .................................... portrayal of the artist as a young man.

My brother was always an extremely .................................... child, and we had to be very careful what we said to him.

28 Paul Smith has always been totally .................................... to helping others less fortunate than himself.

Anna's absolutely .................................... to her career as a surgeon; nothing else is really important to her.

The singer George Andrew has .................................... several of his most recent songs to his wife.

Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English 1, Examination Papers from the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, wyd. Cambridge University Press 2002

Part 4
Eight key word transformations.
You have to rewrite each sentence using the word so that it has a similar meaning. You mustn't change the word given and you must use between three and eight words only.
(8 questions, each worth 2 marks)

Example
For questions 32-39, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between three and eight words, including the word given.
Here is an example (0).

Example: 0 Do you mind if I watch you while you paint?

objection

Do you ..................................................................................................... you while you paint?


0 have any objection to my watching


Write only the missing words on the separate answer sheet.

32 Paul's son was driving the car when the accident happened.

time

The car was ..................................................................................................... of the accident.

33 It was Nick's advice that saved me from bankruptcy.

it

Had ..................................................................................................... have gone bankrupt.

34 The police never actually accused Thomas of committing a crime.

point

At ................................................................................................ Thomas of committing a crime.

35 Neither of these carpets is any better than the other.

choose

There's not ..................................................................................................... these two carpets.

Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English 2, Examination Papers from the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, wyd. Cambridge University Press 2002
Part 5
Two short texts with two questions on each, and one summary task. The questions focus on the style and tone of the text, and on vocabulary. For the summary you have to select relevant information from both texts and write 50 to 70 words.
(4 questions, each worth 2 marks. Summary, worth 14 marks)

Example
For questions 40-44, read the following texts on walking in the countryside. For questions 40-43, answer with a word or short phrase. You do not need to write complete sentences. For question 44, write a summary according to the instructions given.
Write your answers to questions 40-44 on the separate answer sheet.

Researchers have explored the reasons why so many people indulge in outdoor leisure pursuits, such as hiking, in the natural environment. In general, such individuals appear to have less need for affiliation with others, and a preference for solitude as well as high levels of autonomy.
It is possible to make some observations about motivation from this. There is the need for peace and relief of tension facilitated by solitude, and encountering others in the wilderness reduces satisfaction. Then there is confidence building achieved by trying out new activities and acquiring new skills, such as skiing and survival techniques. These can form an important part of an individual's self-concept and improve self-esteem. Stimulation can be obtained by a change in scene, and an opportunity to indulge in risky activities will enhance this, as in the adrenalin rush associated with activities such as bungee jumping. Finally, the natural environment may provide a spiritual uplift, either due to the qualities of the scenery or the symbolic connotations of nature as the giver of life.
Thus, considerable benefits can be gained from outdoor activities, and a range of facilities should be provided to meet the needs of the users. Nevertheless, user satisfaction declines greatly when the outdoor environment is overcrowded or polluted. The necessary facilities must be provided in sufficient quantity as well as quality.

42 What does the writer suggest about the personality of hikers?



43 Explain in your own words why leisure facilities need to be 'provided in sufficient quantity as well as quality'.



44 In a paragraph of 50-70 words, summarise in your own words as far as possible what, according to the writers of the texts, makes people want to explore the countryside. Write your summary on the separate answer sheet.

Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English 2, Examination Papers from the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, wyd. Cambridge University Press 2002
(Total: 75 marks, scaled to 40)


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Paper 4 Listening (about 40 minutes)
There are four parts to this paper which test a wide range of listening skills by means of matching, sentence completion and multiple choice questions. The texts are a variety of types and length, either with one speaker or more than one. Recordings contain a variety of accents, background sounds may be included to provide contextual information. Each text is heard twice. You have time to read the questions and to check your answers afterwards.

Part 1
Three option-multiple-choice questions.
You will hear four short extracts, with two
multiple-choice questions per extract. You have to choose the best of three alternative answers for each question. (8 questions)

Example
You will hear four different extracts. For questions 1-8, choose the answer (A, B or C) which fits best according to what you hear. There are two questions for each extract.

Extract 1
You hear a radio interview with a woman who runs a fish farm in Wales.

1 The farmer says she breeds her own fish because

A it is important for her to be independent of suppliers.
B her clients require records of the fishes' history.
C that is the most satisfying part of the process for her.

2 Why does she say she stays in fish farming?

A Doing her best for her customers is satisfying.
B Her skills are not transferable to other businesses.
C She has built up an extremely profitable business.

Tapescript 1

Interviewer: So, how do you get the fish in the first place? Do you buy them or breed them
here?
Margot: No, I don't rely on anyone else, I'm thankfully self-sufficient in juveniles, the young
ones, because I breed my own fish here as this enables me to give full details of the fishes' origins to customers. They expect that.
Interviewer: Which part of the whole process do you enjoy most?
Margot: Really, product development is my baby, and one has to put one's mind to that continuously. It's crucial.
Interviewer: The marketing skill that you've developed here with your fish - would that be transferable to beef, sheep ...?
Margot: Well, I think it's a mindset, isn't it? To my mind, producing fish is fantastic, it's a great satisfaction to do it properly, but you know, what's the point of producing a wonderful fish if you haven't got a profitable sale at the end of the day? I think it comes down to providing a top quality service for your clients. And I must say, that's really what I enjoy. That's what keeps me here.

Extract 2
You hear a novelist being interviewed about her early career.

3 How does she feel about the scarcity of women writers in literary reviews and journals?

A depressed
B unconcerned
C discouraged

4 Why does the speaker think the novel is a good vehicle for woman writers?

A The best novel writers have tended to be women.
B Her own attempts at drama did not meet with success.
C There is a body of recognised work by female writers.

Tapescript 2

Interviewer:
So, did you feel, when you started publishing, that women were treated differently from men, by critics, for example?
Novelist: It never crossed my mind, so confident was I that I could do it. I think if you start counting the low numbers of reviews and contributors to literary journals, you do get a rather dismal answer. But that didn't worry me. And I think one of the reasons was that writing novels is, for a woman, the best choice to make. There was a long tradition behind you. Had I chosen other forms of literary endeavour like drama, which I did have a go at and failed, it would have been very different. There was a huge gap in England between Aphra Behn, the infamous woman playwright of the sixteenth century, and the next really successful woman dramatist, Caryl Churchill, in the 1960s! I was very conscious in drama of not exactly an establishment, but all sorts of things I couldn't cope with or got frustrated by. The novel was uniquely the sphere in which you felt you had equal billing.

Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English 1, Examination Papers from the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, wyd. Cambridge University Press 2002

Part 2
Completion questions.
One longer extract with nine sentence completion questions.
You hear a monologue or interview. You have to complete gaps in sentences with information from the recording. Each sentence has to be completed with a word or a short phrase. (9 questions)

Example
You will hear an engineer giving a talk on the radio about future developments in robot design. For questions 9-17, complete the sentences with a word or short phrase.

Currently the field of

9 is providing aerodynamic information for robot design.

In the past, using the

10 was the only way scientists could study birds in flight.


The way birds flapped their wings and the arrangement of their

11 were believed to be the keys to flight.


Scientists are using the design of a

12 to help them build a small robot.


The flying robot could provide the

13 with photographs of the interiors of collapsed buildings.


The flying robot must move at

14 in order to avoid hitting things.


The size of the flying robot means that the

15 will have to fit in a small space.


Planes were ruled out as models for the flying robot because of the velocity needed for

16


Engineers rejected helicopters as models for the flying robot because of the issue of

17 made during flight.
Tapescript 3

By dint of brute force and massive use of external energy we can outpace all other animals, but when it comes to sheer finesse and the use of cunning tricks of aerodynamics, the animal kingdom leaves us standing. Increasingly, engineers are looking to zoology for clues on improving performance or making robots that can cope with harsh environments. But although it takes modern science to fathom exactly how animals do things, there's nothing new about the basic principle of trying to copy nature. For instance would we have tried so hard to create flying machines if it wasn't for the example of birds? But in the early days of aeronautical engineering, scientists had inadequate observation techniques, they relied solely on the human eye. Initially, as a consequence of that, they thought that the secret of how birds flew lay in the flapping movements that they made and the pattern of feathers alone. If they'd look-ed at the right aspects of engineering and bird flight, they would have achieved powered flight and manned flight earlier.
Interestingly, flapping wings are now making a comeback. After a century in which powered flight used only fixed and rotating wings, engineers are rediscovering the benefits of how insects fly. They're trying to produce a fitteen-centimetre flying robot, derived in part from the bee. The potential uses of such a machine are limited only by the imagination. For example, it could be used where buildings have collapsed and there are possible casualties to be rescued. If a person is trapped and is still breathing, then there is an opening through which air is coming in and a robot could fly in through this opening and take a photograph which would help the rescuers to assess the position and plan the operation better.
But why model the robot on insect flight at all? The answer to this is that only an insect is up to the demands of the job. If you think of working inside buildings, manoeuvring at low speeds is essential because otherwise the robot will collide with obstructions. It will need to be able to hover, because if it finds something of interest, it will have to stay still to take a clear picture of it. And finally, and this is a very important requirement, the robot must fly in a power-efficient way, because it will be fairly small so there won't be much space to put in an energy source. So the first thought of the design team was to use some conventional design like a fixed-wing forward thrust, as in the usual plane, or alternatively, rotary wings, found in a helicopter, and scale them down to fifteen centimetres. The problem is that planes require considerable speed to achieve take-off, so they can't fly very slowly and also they can't hover or manoeuvre in a very agile way. So would helicopters be more appropriate? They can certain-ly fly very slowly and hover and they are very manoeuvrable, but they have other problems: they generate considerable noise, so that would rule out any situations where the robots would need to remain undetected such as in undercover surveillance or data gathering projects. So, hav-ing eliminated the tried and tested designs, the question was what other proven design was there? In 300 million years flapping-wing insects have certainly proved their efficiency. They offer agility even at low speed, they can do amazing aerobatics, they can hover, and unlike helicopters their flight mechanism generates very little noise.
There's more to insect flight than just flapping wings though. The movements of those wings are remarkably complex. For engineers to create a successful flying robot they will have to draw on the accumulated knowledge of zoologists. It's going to be a hard but fascinating journey of discovery.

Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English 2, Examination Papers from the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, wyd. Cambridge University Press 2002

Part 3
Multiple-choice questions.
You hear a discussion or interview. There are five multiple-choice questions. You have to choose the best of four alternative answers
for each question. (5 questions)

You will hear an interview with Derek Allen, an author, about the writing process. For questions 18-22, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which fits best according to what you hear.

18 Derek Allen thought his book would be successful because

A it deals with an unusual subject.
B he did a lot of research for it.
C its packaging was appealing.
D he invested a lot of effort in it.

19 Allen says that writing for radio is useful because it

A can be good preparation for writing a book.
B makes you popular with a wide audience.
C requires the same dialogue as a book.
D allows you to introduce a variety of characters.

20 Allen says he uses science fiction because

A it represents his vision of what the future will be like.
B many events can happen in a short space of time.
C he wants to make it popular among readers.
D it allows him to explore a bizarre chain of events.

21 According to Allen, other writers use coincidence to

A throw light on characters.
B resolve difficulties with storylines.
C make the reader work harder.
D introduce an element of danger.

22 If Allen was a painter, which element of a painting would he get wrong?

A the background
B the shape of the figures
C the proportions
D the detail

Tapescript 4

Interviewer:
... OK, and now we move to our section on books and authors. The book we're
discussing today is Travelling in Space and we'll be discussing it with its creator, Derek Allen. It was originally presented as a 12-part radio series and it's a pretty outrageous and satirical science fiction epic but offers a gleefully pessimistic view of modern society. A year later, the book of the radio programme was published and it went straight to the top of the best-seller list - it sold 10,000 copies in the first month alone. Derek Allen, welcome. Now, can I start by asking you what is the essence of its success?
Derek Allen: Of course, it's an unanswerable question. If one knew the answer, one could bottle it. The only thing I can say with any degree of certainty is that, however extraordinary its success may have turned out to be, there's a little bit of me that isn't surprised because I actually know how much I put into it in terms of worry and stress. I mean, we all know the packaging can be very attractive but it's what's inside that matters. And, you see, there's a little bit of me that doesn't expect anything I've written to be any good, so you work at it a bit more and a bit more, and you are so determined to pack everything in, so it doesn't surprise me that people have got so much out of it in the end.
Interviewer: It's a funny thing, isn't it, radio and writing books go together, don't they?
Derek Allen: The overlap between radio listeners and a book audience is absolutely enormous, very much more so than between a book audience and television. But it is words. Now the thing is that one of the strengths of the book is that I originally wrote it all as dialogue. Now the thing about that is that the characters, therefore, are forced to tell the story. So the range of dialogue the characters have to employ is enormous. The mere fact of getting the characters always having to be the ones who tell the story, that gives you a tremendously good backbone for then writing a book.
Interviewer: Absolutely. Now, the thing that strikes me is that in some ways you are 'sending up' the craft of science fiction and yet you've become a hero of the genre. Curious, isn't it?
Derek Allen: As far as I was concerned, I wasn't 'sending up' science fiction. I was using science fiction as a vehicle for 'sending up' everything else. In comedy, for example, a sketch can create some sort of surreal premise on which a universe is based that will then last for two or three minutes and then you're on to the next scene. And I always wanted to say - but what are the consequences of that surreal premise? So, for example, right back at the beginning of the story, it could start with a man whose house is demolished to make way for a by-pass and so it then becomes conceivable that the earth then gets demolished to make way for a hyper-space by-pass. OK, now let's move it on again, let's give that consequences and of course, once you've blown up the earth, you are kind of committed to science fiction!
Interviewer: Yes, and the other thing I notice is that while most writers avoid situations based on coincidence, you positively revel in it.
Derek Allen: Yes, well, coincidence is the thing that for many authors indicates that the plot has broken down and he is in danger of losing the reader! But I decided to embrace coincidences. As a coincidence is difficult to write about and to do it successfully you have to understand the force that you're dealing with. For example, I can put characters in great jeopardy and you have a dilemma, which is, that if the jeopardy is going to mean anything, then you can't get them out of it with one bound. So it's got to be something, something that's going to be of equal weight. I was watching a TV programme on judo where the principle is to use your opponent's weight against himself. So every problem I come up with has to be resolved by something that is equally implausible!
Interviewer: So is this all clearly delineated for you before you start?
Derek Allen: Well, no, normally what an artist would do is rough out the general shape of the picture - a man's going to be standing here, there's going to be a donkey over here or whatever and you've got the main shape of the picture. Then you gradually put in a background - you rough it out in grey and then you put in the layers of paint but the first thing that's there is the shape of it. Now, if I was a painter, I would start painting in enormous detail down in the bottom left-hand corner and by the time I got to the top, everything would be out of scale.
Interviewer: Right, OK well, let's bring in our guest reviewer now ...

Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English 1, Examination Papers from the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, wyd. Cambridge University Press 2002

Part 4
Multiple matching.
You hear a discussion between two people. You have to match each of a list of six opinions or statements to the names of the speakers, according to who said what. If they agreed about something you write both names. (6 questions)

Example
You will hear two friends, Kathy and Derek, talking about films based on 19th century novels. For questions 23-28, decide whether the opinions are expressed by only one of the speakers, or whether the speakers agree.

Write K for Kathy
D for Derek
or B for Both, where they agree.

23 In the film Oliver Twist, it was hard to think of the actors
as the characters they were playing.


24 Film adaptations of the 1930s and 40s reflect their own time.


25 Film adaptations made nowadays may reflect current attitudes.


26 The actor sometimes does not match your idea of the character.


27 The author's viewpoint should be evident in film adaptations.


28 The film audience are able to reach their own conclusions about the characters.



Tapescript 5

Derek:
Have you seen that new film of Oliver Twist, Kathy?
Kathy: Yes, I went last night. How about you?
Derek: Saw it Monday. Good, isn't it?
Kathy: Mm, it made me want to read the novel again.
Derek: Me too, but there were so many actors I knew, I couldn't forget who they really were.
Kathy: I know what you mean, but I can't say that worried me. I thought it was great seeing all those famous people.
Derek: Still, it really brought the world of the novel to life.
Kathy: Yes, there are so many films based on novels which end up falling between two
stools, neither a good version of the novel nor something original.
Derek: You know, it's interesting how, if you look at some 1930s and 40s films of l9th-century novels, they're really rooted in the period they were made, in the way people behaved and related to each other then.
Kathy: Mm, I suppose so.
Derek: And in the last few years, there's much more effort made to be authentic. Like how people walk. 19th-century clothes are so different from modern ones that people had to walk differently, and women were expected to take small steps. But in some old films the actors moved around as though they were wearing their own clothes. At least that doesn't happen so much these days.
Kathy: But maybe if we saw today's films again in 20 years' time, they'd seem just as dated. It's because we're so close to them that we can't see that they're just as much reflections of our own time as the 30s films were of theirs. Maybe they actually show more about us and our values than about the novel that they're based on.
Derek: Oh, surely directors and actors now are aware of the danger, so they actually try to get inside the minds of 19th-century people.
Kathy: Well, we'll see. But you know what disturbs me sometimes is when I know the novel and have a clear picture of a character, and the actor is just wrong for the part.
Derek: Like when the hero's supposed to be good-looking and you can't imagine anyone falling for him.
Kathy: There was one film I had to walk out of, because the heroine was played as neurotic, and there wasn't a hint of that in the book.
Derek: Mm. That sort of thing's taking artistic licence too far - if you're going to adapt a novel, you shouldn't make any major changes to the characters or the plot.
Kathy: Actually, another thing that struck me is that in films I usually miss the author's voice.
Derek: But he's sometimes there as an unseen narrator.
Kathy: Mm, but in the novels the writer's there all the time, in little comments, and in films they either don't appear at all, or hardly.
Derek: Do we need him at all? People make up their own minds about the characters. They don't need to be nudged in a particular direction by the author.
Kathy: Do you think that's really possible? After all, the author's created the character and what they do, so we're manipulated into reacting to them in the way he wants us to.
Derek: Look - suppose he approves of corporal punishment, say, and you don't. You'd judge a father beating his son differently from the way the author would.
Kathy: Mm, but maybe it doesn't matter. Because usually we watch these films as escapism, don't we? Not as something to take too seriously.

Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English 1, Examination Papers from the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, wyd. Cambridge University Press 2002
(Total: 28 marks, scaled to 40)


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Paper 5 Speaking (about 20 minutes per pair of candidates)
There two candidates and two examiners. One is the assessor (who listens and assesses but doesn't join in) and the other is interlocutor (who sets up the task, joins in sometimes, and also assesses). The interlocutor also has to make sure that one candidate doesn't dominate the conversations, so that you both have an equal amount of time to show how good you are at speaking English.

Part 1 Conversation with interlocutor. The interlocutor encourages each candidate in turn to
give information about themselves and to express personal opinions. This part involves general interaction and social language. (3 minutes)

Part 2 Conversation about pictures. The candidates are given visual and spoken prompts, which generate a discussion between them. You'll have pictures to talk about (but not actually describe): the interlocutor will tell you what you have to do. This part involves comparing, decision making, evaluating, giving opinions and speculating. The interlocutor only joins in if one candidate is speaking too much. (4 minutes)

Part 3 Long turns and discussion. Each candidate in turn is given a written question to respond to. You have to talk for two minutes on the theme of the question, uninterrupted. After each candidate has spoken, the interlocutor asks you questions to encourage a discussion on the same topic. This part involves organising a larger unit of discourse, developing topics, and expressing and justifying opinions. (12 minutes)

Example
Speak for two minutes on this topic:

What are your views on doctors and the medical profession?
  • keeping your teeth healthy and dentists

    • the quality of health care in your community

    • alternative medicine (acupuncture, homeopathy etc.)

      Leo Jones, New Progress to Proficiency, Self-study student's Book ( New for December 2002 specification), wyd. Cambridge University Press 2002
      (Total: Assessors' mark scaled to 40 marks)
      The Speaking Test is an opportunity to demonstrate your level of English . Candidates are involved in a discussion. Explaining and giving reasons are important aspects of this, as well as asking each other to justify their opinions. Try to give a good impression of your spoken English. Don't just wait to be asked questions - behave and speak as you would in a real conversation. Each part of the Speaking test is all based on the same general topic, but you won't loose marks if you go off a tangent.

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